The story of the famous saints from the time period of 200 A.D – 900 A.D always have fascinated me ever since my dad mentioned them to me. Today I am writing this article to bring to light to many in my generation the importance of this time period and what these men did had a tremendous impact even culturally towards Western Civilization.
After the fall of the Roman Empire Gaul was a major central point specially the celtic region of Aremorio which is known as Armorica, Domnonée, or Brittany. Aremorio means ‘ar’ (‘at’, or ‘before’, or ‘next to’), plus ‘mor/mare’, which means ‘sea’ or ‘ocean’. In other words it means ‘next to the sea’.
From Armorica many missionaries were sent to what we know as today as Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and England. These monks founded many monasteries throughout Europe. Orders such as the Celtic monasticism (Romano-British) and the Benedictines. Here are a list of saints in the time period of 200 A.D – 900 A.D.
Saint Paol Aorelian
Saint Samson of Dol
Saint Cadog the Wise
There are many other to add to this list. By reading their stories one will come across what really was happening during this time period and the challenges they had to face. My favorite are Brendan, Columba, Judiacael, and Malo. Regarding Malo, The Falkland Islands, Islas Malvinas, can be traced to Saint Malo, as it is derived from the French, Îles Malouines, named by Louis Antoine de Bougainville in 1764.
Augusto Pinochet, the true story and hard facts I will give you that many news media outlets are intentionally leaving out. As well as politicians from Chile with a political agenda to wipe the legacy and bravery of many Chilean patriots how they saved Chile from itself on September 11, 1973.
Before the military coup of September 11, 1973 the social and economical state of Chile was turbulent as well as chaotic as how Venezuela is today as its people are now struggling financially and with much unrest. Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) (The Revolutionary Left Movement) was a political and guerrilla organization founded by Miguel Enríquez on October 12, 1965 that was the cause for the coup of September 11, 1973.
MIR head figures Miguel Enríquez, Marco Antonio Enríquez, and Marcello Ferrada de Noli wrote the “Tesis Insurreccional”, the political-military theses of MIR. The group emerged from various student organizations, mainly from University of Concepción (led by Miguel Enríquez), that had originally been active in the youth organization of the Socialist Party. They established a base of support among the trade unions and cities of Concepción, Santiago, and other cities. Before President Allende came to the scene MIR organized workers and folks seizing control of factories and farms in Chile.
MIR also advocated a Marxist-Leninist model of revolution in which it would lead the working class to a “dictatorship of the proletariat (laboring class)”. MIR radical ideology birthed hatred against the Republic of Chile and those who represented it. MIR on September of 1967 created violent clashes between MIR-led students from the University of Concepción and the riot police. One incident involved the Carabineros who were seeking to arrest those responsible for destroying a police vehicle, but students reorganized and kidnapped carabinier Héctor Gutiérrez Orellana. They kidnapped a police officer to show their defiance against the government of Chile. This incident alarmed the Christian Democratic Party of Chile and used the incident to ban MIR and begin persecution of its known leaders.
MIR were also involved in guerrilla operations and carried out 12 armed robberies of banks and businesses between August 1969 and September 1970 to finance their operations. As well carried out many terrorist attacks against Chileans who opposed communism. MIR bomb attacks took place in various parts of the country that targeted, among others, the U.S. consulate, the Chilean-American Institute in Rancagua, the main office of the Christian Democratic Party, the office of Chile’s largest-selling El Mercurio newspaper and the residence of senator Francisco Bulnes of the National Party.
From MIR there were grassroot organizations that were created out from it from present and former members. In June 1971, a small group known as the Vanguardia Organizada del Pueblo (VOP), founded among others by two former MIR militants expelled from the Organization in 1969, conducted the abduction and murder of the former Minister of Interior Affairs during the Christian Democratic government, Edmundo Pérez Zujovic.
MIR was targeting young people to join the cause as well was receiving outside help and funding, including developing technology to control the entire country such as project Cybersyn. MIR also infiltrated parts of the Chilean Navy and were working with their counter parts the Argentine ERP, the Uruguayan Tupamaros and the Bolivian National Liberation Army). MIR attacked women and children, and did many more atrocities targeting those who did not share their ideology. Not everyone at MIR was die hard, but many were radical and had a terrorist nature for the cause of communism. At the same time MIR had a peaceful front marketed as a peaceful movement. MIR explicitly condemned terrorism perpetrated against individuals publicly. Its biggest success was their democratically elected socialist president, Salvador Allende.
When Allende came to the scene The Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR) were absolved of criminal charges under an amnesty under the Popular Unity (Unidad Popular or UP) government of Allende and was allowed to operate again openly, encouraging and carrying out illegal expropriations of farms and businesses, and assaulting outspoken conservatives/rightist members of the public and security forces.
This is when the Chilean people began begging to the Chilean armed forces to do something about the violence. What sparked the Chilean military to get involved was the Marcha de las Cacerolas Vacías (March of the Empty Pots) signaled the beginning of a massive coordinated anti-Allende movement. On December 1, 1971, 50,000-200,000 women took to the streets of Santiago, Chile the capital to protest against Salvador Allende’s Unidad Popular government. The women alongside their children shouted the following.
“Chile has been, and will be, a nation that lives in liberty,” the women chanted.
“In Chile there is hunger! We do not want Castro here!”
Many of these brave women and their children who were with them. There were many of them who were injured, they were shot at with guns, the police used high‐pressure hoses from water trucks to douse the retreating demonstrators. There were grandmothers and young girls in slacks and blouses, teachers and housewives. Allende’s government sent the riot policemen, carrying plastic shields and visored helmets, began firing tear‐gas grenades, which exploded among the women. The police also fired a volley of grenades of tear gas to these peaceful protestors. There were many newspapers that reported this violence against the women including the New York Times. They even reported of MIR member violence against them and beat many of them physically. After this incident the cry of Chileans begging for the military to do something was even stronger. Here is a rare video of the incident so you can see it with your own eyes.
The first attempt was an operation called Tanquetazo on June 29, 1973 was a failed coup attempt in Chile led by Lieutenant Colonel Roberto Souper against the government of Socialist president Salvador Allende.
Allende and MIR were very well organized and had tremendous support. Here are some of their exploits
On 4 September 1973, police shoot and kill a 16-year-old student (Gunter Warenker Contreras) protesting against the government of Allende. That same day, a guerrilla camp is discovered in Nehuentúe. The next day, Juan Romero, Luis Menares, Andrés Osorio and Mario Montucci are killed during confrontations involving truckers protesting against Allende and carabineers sent to break the strike.
On 8 September 1973, soldiers from the Temuco Garrison raid a Guerrilla Camp at Mamuil Malal and capture 13 guerrillas. During the military coup that ousted president Salvador Allende, the military and police report 34 deaths in the space of 48 hours battling leftists: two army sergeants, three army corporals, four army privates, 2 marine lieutenants, 1 marine corporal, 4 marine cadets, 3 marine conscripts and 15 policemen.
On 19 September 1973, Army Private Gerardo León Acuña is killed when he loses control of his military vehicle while on patrol. On 1 October 1973, leftist militants in support of the MIR attack a military vehicle, killing Army Private Pedro Prado Ortiz.
On 7 November 1973, leftist guerrillas in Santiago open fire on an army truck in the suburb of La Florida, killing Army Private Agustín Correa Contreras.
On 13 November 1973, MIR guerrillas shoot and kill Army Corporal Juan Castro Vega. On 17 November 1973, MIR guerrillas shoot and kill Army Sergeant Waldo Morales Neal. On 19 November 1973, while on guard duty in Osorno, Army Private Clemente Santibáñez Vargas is killed.
On 27 November 1973, MIR guerrillas kill Army Corporal Ramón Madariaga Valdebenito. On 3 December 1973, MIR guerrillas kill two non-commissioned officers, Corporal Rodolfo Peña Tapia and Luis Collao Salas, and conscript Julio Barahona Aranda from the Chilean Army.
On 13 December 1973, two Army Sergeants, Sergio Cannon Lermanda and Pedro Osorio Guerrero are killed while on patrol in Bulnes. On 15 December 1973, guerrillas operating in the suburb of La Reina in Santiago, shoot and kill Army Corporal Roberto Barra Martínez.
On 26 December 1973, leftist guerrillas open fire on an army jeep, killing Private José Luis Huerta Abarca. By the end of the year, Chilean police would claim to have discovered a huge arsenal of weapons obtained from abroad, including 5,000 modern HK-33 assault rifles and corresponding ammunition in the millions and large quantities of 20mm anti-tank projectiles.
MIR the militant right arm of the communist party of Chile was responsible for more than 5,000 murders of Chileans before the coup. If a public investigation were to be called to investigate this claim, it will have to also cover former MIR sites in Chile with forensic teams. As well as speaking to family members who lost their loved ones to MIR. The investigation must cover both Chilean citizens and public servants before the coup. Also it is no secret that President Salvador Allende discussed plans to replace the existing police and military with a militia recruited from the Popular Front’s (MIR) supporters.
When Fidel Castro came to Chile on November 10, 1971. Castro’s 10-day itinerary was extended to 24 days. What many people do not know is that MIR was trained in training camps in Cuba. MIR in Chile was sending many to Cuba to be trained before the coup. Cuba’s training camps birthed Colombia FARC, Argentine ERP, the Uruguayan Tupamaros and the Bolivian National Liberation Army). Castro talked extensively with university students, workers and shopkeepers during his visit to Chile in 1971.
El Tancazo of June 29, 1973 was a failed coup attempt in Chile led by Lieutenant Colonel Roberto Souper by the request of many Chileans citizens against the government of Socialist president Salvador Allende. Colonel Souper led a column of sixteen armored vehicles, including six Sherman tanks, plus 80 soldiers from the Second Armored Battalion in Santiago. The rebel column rapidly traveled to downtown Santiago and encircled the presidential palace, La Moneda, and the building housing the Ministry of Defense, just across the Plaza de la Libertad. At two minutes before 9:00 AM, the tanks opened fire on these buildings. Nevertheless, coup was successfully put down by loyal soldiers led by Army Commander-in-Chief Carlos Prats. This attempt showed how well equipped MIR was and its counterparts in the armed forces of Chile.
The Coup d’état
On September 11 was the day the Chile and the world will always remember. Just as the Winged Hussars came to Vienna’s rescue on September 11, 1683. The armed forces of Chile came to the rescue to save the republic of Chile to restore it led by César Mendoza, José Toribio Merino, Augusto Pinochet and Gustavo Leigh. With the help of many from all branches of the military. Many patriots died on this day in the hands of MIR.
Martial law was declared for all of Chile in the airwaves. It had to be declared because the military forces of the republic had to depose as fast as possible the socialist armed forces and the MIR guerrilla forces. Unidad Popular and MIR were very well equipped. It is unknown how many died on the republic forces side when trying to remove the socialist forces. What I have been told it was a heavy price that was paid in blood. The media funded by the left has always spun that the republic armed forces of Chile went against unarmed citizens. No, those were all lies. There were many patriots fighting alongside the republic of Chile forces. Augusto Pinochet was not the only Pinochet fighting that daygoing kaboom. The same goes for the military families of Chile.
On this video that you just saw. Just as the junta stated it had the support of many citizens of Chile. MIR had killed more than 5,000 Chileans by September 11th who got in their way. There were many Chileans that were jobless and hungry. This was due because Salvador Allende Marxist agenda to nationalize just about every industry that brought Chile into a poverty state just as Fidel Castro did in Cuba.
The fighting continued after September 11, 1973. There was a roundup of MIR members and those of the communist party. Justice was delivered with a military response for the 5,000 victims to their terror network. The worst of the worst received helicopter rides. There were those in MIR and the socialist party who did not know that MIR was taking out people. The top heads of MIR and the communist party knew. There were incidents that the Chilean military did during this time went out of hand. Again, this was a military response to a situation that required it. If MIR would had not killed civilians and directly target the armed forces of Chile there would today be a different story.
MIR was organized to be the Marxist-Leninist vanguard of the working class and oppressed layers of Chile who were seeking national and social emancipation. MIR believed that the struggles for national liberation and agrarian reform have to be transformed, through a process of permanent and uninterrupted revolution, into social revolutions, demonstrating that without the overthrow of the bourgeoisie, there is no possibility of national liberation and full agrarian reform-democratic tasks that are combined with socialist measures.
The Restoration of the Republic of Chile
The restoration of the republic of Chile was not an easy task with many obstacles to confront. MIR heavily resisted after the coup, many escaped. The Revolutionary Coordinating Junta (JCR) was then formed comprising MIR, the Argentina’s People’s Revolutionary Army (ERP), the Bolivian National Liberation Army and the Tupamaros from Uruguay. Together targeted Chile during the military rule of Chile.
While all these things were going on Operación Soberanía (Operation Sovereignty) was being planned by the Argentine military to invade Chile. Chile was attacked in many fronts.
The military junta under the the laws of the republic of Chile declared Augusto Pinochet to not just lead the junta. But to be the President of the Republic of Chile. To lead Chile to restore the republic.
Augusto Pinochet and the Chilean armed forces knowing little about how to bring life to the economy of Chile and limited in resources. Their drive and passion resulted in the biggest economical miracle in history. The free market and capitalism works. Look how its working now for President Donald Trump and the United States. Biggest gains in the stock market in history is happening now. The free market brings prosperity. Augusto Pinochet called forth for the brightest minds to come together such as the Chicago Boys and allowed them to transform the entire Chilean society.
Today Chile is the most powerful economy in South America and is a leader in many fronts. The Chicago Boys were a group of Chilean economists prominent around the 1970s and 1980s, the majority of whom trained at the Department of Economics of the University of Chicago under Milton Friedman and Arnold Harberger.
The Chilean miracle did not come without a fight. MIR targeted many Chileans specially the Chilean military or whom ever they labeled as their enemy even after the coup. The reason for Chilean military put curfew hours and had troops all over city near the population was not to instill terror, but to protect them from the MIR terrorists.
List of Terrorist Attacks in Chile
April 28, 1986 – A bomb explodes in the Center of Santiago. Four civilian women are wounded, Gabriela González Yébenes, Irma Vega Farías, Elsa Medina Parra and Eliana Munita Uribe.
In May 1986 – Guerrillas in Santiago threw sulfuric acid on a bus, seriously injuring six civilian passengers, including two minors.
On June 16, 1986 – The Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front carried out an explosive attack on the Tobalaba station of the Santiago Metro, causing one death (Jorge Campos Fardella) and six injuries (Roberto Barros Sánchez, Juan Ruiz de Mujica, Laura Barceló Muñoz, Alez Soto Chindulza, Nelson Araneda Araneda and Esteban Gutiérrez Jorquera).
On July 25, 1986 – A bomb of the militants placed in a metal taro for trash a few yards from the Presidential House, is activated when a bus approaches, injuring 36 santiaguinos.
On August 6, 1986 – Chilean security forces discovered 80 tons of weapons in the small fishing port of Carrizal Bajo that arrived from Cuba for the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front (FPMR) and the Communist Party of Chile (PCCh). Guerrilla weapons include C-4 plastic explosives, 123 RPG-7 anti-tank grenade launchers and 180 M72 rocket launchers, as well as 3,383 M-16 assault rifles.
According to Luis Heinecke Scott, “what we wanted to implant here was a guerrilla war in the style of those produced in Nicaragua or El Salvador, a protracted people’s war, and that’s what communism failed to do, thanks to Carrizal’s discoveries. Low.
In the last week of August 1986, guerrillas operating in Santiago and Valparaíso detonate 13 bombs and kill a policeman and wound 4 soldiers near the National Stadium.
On May 10, 1990, the police colonel Luis Fontaine was killed, implicated in the slaughter of three communist militants in 1985. The perpetrators of the shooting were members of the FPMR
Half of the Chilean population is anti-pinochet and the other are pro-pinochet. One of my cousins Augusto Pinochet Molina was on national TV on a debate with congressman Hugo Gutierrez regarding his grandfather what the grand majority of Chileans think of his legacy. A reformist or a dictator? The poll dictated that 62% of Chileans believe he was a reformist.
Regardless of all the negative things that congressman Hugo Gutierrez on national television had to say about President/General Augusto Pinochet. This poll sends a strong message that many Chileans recognized Augusto Pinochet as a reformist.
One of the most shocking things that Augusto Pinochet did was when he called for a democratic election to be held in Chile. When he lost he gave up the presidential ribbon to the newly elected president of Chile, Patricio Aylwin. Just as Bernardo O’Higggins did so, the founding father of Chile. Augusto Pinochet was not a man of words, but of action with a heart who had the respect of all the armed forces of Chile. Augusto wanted to stay in power longer and he thought he was going to win the election, regardless he stepped down. He respected hightly the constitution of Chile and set an important presedent just as Bernardo O’Higgins.
The War Against Augusto Pinochet’s Legacy and The Pinochet Family
When President Patricio Aylwin took the helm of Chile. Augusto Pinochet became the prime target of many groups specially MIR and socialist politicians even abroad. Also those who stood close to him by his side were also being attacked in the media. Specially the families of César Mendoza, José Toribio Merino, and Gustavo Leigh. September 11, 1973 sent a strong message to the world that communism is a failure, and that capitalism and the freemarket is the way to go. It also set an example to the world to stand up against the tyrany of marxist terrorist or any type of terrorists.
During the early 1990’s MIR operatives through guise infiltrated key positions in the goverment of Chile and the media. Once positioned, the attack on the military and specially Augusto Pinochet became intense. Specially when President Frei and Lagos of Chile took office.
For the past 30 years the attacks on the warriors of Chile, its families, and specially the Pinochet family have not stopped. The media in Chile and many outlets continue to attack the legacy by demonizing him and the military government of Chile as human rights violators, killers, and many other kinds of accusations. Use Bing, Google, and Yahoo and search Pinochet and you will find all the wrongfull accusations. Its allot.
The goverment and the people of Chile have forgotten that it was the people who asked the military to intervene and save them from the marxist. The only way to do that was a military responce. They were armed, deadly, and were even directly attacking the armed forces of Chile including the police force with suicide bombs strapped to them.
Everytime the media attacks Augusto Pinochet or the Pinochet family is a direct attack on the armed forces of Chile and what their uniform stands for. The Chilean government/politicians has been fucking bastards standing to the side for the past 30 years or directly attacking the military families. This article is not about the Pinochet family. This is dedicated to the Chilean military and their families for all the crap they had gone thru and some of their family members are in jail because MIR terrorists killed over 5,000 Chileans and they did something about it.
Why has no human right organization looked into the crimes of MIR and the socialist party of Chile? Why the international media outlets have not said one word in print about the MIR victims. Instead paints them as saints. Saints who murdered over 5,000 Chileans. As for the saviors of Chile they call them facists. Maybe the time has come to file a lawsuit at the Hague. There are international laws against:
intimidating or coercing a civilian population;
influencing the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion;
It is time to hold accountable the Chilean demonizers and put them under a microspope and find out if they are linked to the new MIR.
Download: The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile